|1962||Relaxation of restrictive policies|
The Scott Report signals a major policy shift. WJ Scott's Fishing Industry Committee concludes that restrictive policies have resulted in the fishing industry being unable to grow and compete internationally. It recommends the current licensing system be abolished and replaced with a vessel registration system, and that a Fishing Industry Board be established. This provides impetus to boatbuilding and engineering in the coming years of expansion.
|1962||Export incentive scheme introduced||Import licences on raw materials used in the export of end products and tax incentives form the basis of a new export incentive scheme.|| |
|1963||Fisheries Industry Board established||WJ Scott is appointed Minister of Marine. The Fishing Industry Board is established as a statutory body funded in part from a levy on fish sold domestically and overseas. Its focus is initially directed to economic production, marketing, pricing and supply, quality assurance, and the fostering of co-operation within the seafood industry. Over time this evolves to : trade development, both domestically and internationally and maintenance and development of standards for hygiene and seafood quality; communications, co-ordination and consultation among the many industry sectors; research and development and co-operation with domestic and international research centres; facilitation of consultation between the Government, the seafood industry, other statutory bodies and user groups, and provide logistical support and centralised information.|| |
|1963||Investment in steel trawlers||De-licensing starts re-investment in boats, including modern steel trawlers with stern ramps, radar and fish finders.|| |
|1963||Pelagic fishing experiments|
The Olwyn catches nearly 2 tons of albacore, yellow fin and skipjack tuna on longlines and stimulates a decade of testing to see how to commercialise the pelagic fishery.
|1963||Foveaux oyster licensing removed|
The high price of oysters, leads to licensing being replaced by registration and the monopoly of the "oyster barons" being removed. Landings in 1960 were 120,000 sacks. With new entrants allowed and catch limits being modified upwards, vessels increase from 12 to 21. Catch levels grow to 160,000 sacks in 1966 and 164,000 in 1967. They then fall to 147,000 and 66,000 in 1968 and 1969. By 1969 the oligopoly of the main 3 companies has returned.
|1964||Early mussel farming experiments||Early experimentation with mussel farming on pontoons and ropes paves the way to the Marine Farming Act 1971.|| |
|1965||12 mile zone|
Japanese fishing boats first start to appear off New Zealand's waters in the late 1950s. Their presence, and the UK setting up a 12 mile limit in 1964, become the catalyst for an extended NZ fishing zone as large quantities of fish are caught by Japan's fishing fleet. The Territorial Sea and Fishing Zone Act 1965 extends New Zealand’s jurisdiction from 3 to 12 miles and empowers MAF to regulate foreign vessels entering the 12 mile zone.
|1965||New vessel loan scheme||The government announces a loan scheme to individual fishermen of up to 50% of the value of a new vessel or 15,000 pounds. By 1968 this is extended to include new gear, engines or re-financing.|| |
|1965||New Zealand Sea Products Export formed||New Zealand Sea Products Export is formed and will evolve into Sealord|| |
|1965 to 1969||The Chathams crayfish rush|
The Chatham Islands crayfish boom is started in 1965 following a visit by the Picton, which sailed back to Wellington with a cargo of 2 tons. The rush lasted four years, during which time the official catch was 14,427 tons. Estimates of 20,000 to 25,000 are believed to be more accurate, compared to 20,000 tons in Fiordland during the ten years of the 1960s. Many boats and lives are lost on the Chatham Rise and the trip to and from the mainland. Although freezing and processing plants are built, little of the value is retained in the local economy. As the stocks became depleted by 1973, the "looters" return to the mainland.
|1967||Japanese expand species and catch to 130,000 tons|
Sanford's makes its first export shipment to Japan in 1967. The Japanese highly prize snapper and new handling and packing methods develop as a result of the need to improve quality. Meanwhile Japanese vessels undertake research, which is made available to the Marine Department. By 1971 the Japanese fleet is estimated to catch over 130,000 tons of fish from outside the 12 mile limit; species include squid, bluefin tuna, mackerel, barracouta and sharks. The Japanese protect their local inshore fleet with import controls, whilst their offshore fleet has fairly open access to New Zealand's waters. This disparity becomes a major source of tension.
|1967||Director of Fisheries Research||G Duncan Waugh is appointed full-time Director of Fisheries Research, with an initial team of 8 scientists and 9 technicians.|| |
|1967 to 1977||Unconstrained expansion||Access is opened to the Australian market. During this period the number of registered vessels grows from 2161 in 1967 to 5178 in 1977 and there is a realisation that economic development of the seafood industry requires different technology, processing and marketing. Export and depreciation tax incentives fuel the investment.|| |
|1971||Wetfish catch totals 43,286 tons, worth $7.15m|
Despite rapid inflation, there is a dramatic increase in the value of New Zealand's wetfish catch over the decade to $7.15m. The value of exports represents 105% of the total value of landings. Total catch, including shellfish, is valued at $19.3m.
|1971||Marine farms encouraged||The Marine Farming Act 1971 administers the establishment of marine farms, primarily associated with mussels, pacific oysters and farmed salmon.|| |
|1972||Growth of foreign vessels||The relatively unconstrained expansion of participation in the catching sector, including increasing presence of Japanese vessels off New Zealand’s coast continues. In 1972 calls at New Zealand ports are made by 330 foreign vessels : 290 Japanese, 25 Soviet, 14 Korean and 1 Chinese.|| |
|1972||JBL goes into receivership|
Property investment company, JBL, which had diversified into fishing, goes into receivership. Many new investors, who saw fishing as a growth industry are burnt. The receiver keeps the fishing arm going via a joint venture of Nelson Fisheries and Nichimo Limited of Japan.
|1972||Fisheries moves to MAF|
Fishing industry leaders see the money being put into research by the Ministry of Agriculture, and lobby for change. They are supportive when the Marine Department is abolished. Responsibility for ships goes to the Transport Department and fisheries join with agriculture. The Fisheries Research Division grows to 33 scientists and 52 technicians in the first year as part of MAF (the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries).
|1973||Pacific oysters produced at Orongo Bay||Pacific oysters are farmed by the Marine Department at its oyster farm at Orongo Bay. By 1977 441 tonnes worth $0.5m are exported.|| |
|1975||Orange roughy discovered on the Chatham Rise|
The Japanese research vessel, the Shinkai Maru discovers orange roughy, whilst trawling at 800m depth off the Chatham Rise. Because it is white fleshed and not pink, the Japanese captain moves on and the fishery is not exploited until the factory ship Wesermunde creates demand in 1979.
|1975||Hake and hoki fishery developed|
Japanese trawlers begin taking hake when fishing for hoki. Catch in 1975 is 71 tonnes and grows to 5,005 tonnes in 1976. Soviet trawlers on the Chatham Rise target other new species - oreo, southern blue whiting and ling.
|1975||Tuna/pelagic fishery developed|
In the mid 1970s tuna catches grow, based on pioneering work by Watties, which imports a number of seiners. International super seiners also arrive via joint ventures. By 1983 most pelagic fishing is done in international waters in the western Pacific, due to longer seasons and proximity to canning factories.
|1976||Foreign catch exceeds 212,000 tons||The combined Japanese USSR longline and trawl catch reaches 212,000 tons in the year before the EEZ is declared.|| |
The Fisheries Amendment Act 1977 gives MAF the authority to declare controlled fisheries. This compensates for the removal of licensing and one port landing in the 1960s, which resulted in fishermen being very quick to exploit new fisheries, with damaging results. Fisheries that subsequently benefit from stricter control include Nelson and Coromandel scallops, eels, Bluff oysters, rock lobster and Hauraki Gulf snapper.
|1977||200 mile EEZ established and TAC/TACCs required|
The Territorial Sea and Fishing Zone Act 1977 extends the territorial sea from 3 to 12 miles and establishes an EEZ 188 miles beyond the territorial sea and encompassing 4.1 million square kilometres of ocean. The United Nation’s Law of the Sea acknowledges New Zealand’s right to implement management measures over all waters within the 200 mile zone. New Zealand then has responsibility to set annual TAC and TACCs. In return New Zealand makes available to foreign nations that portion of TACC that cannot be harvested by domestic fishing activity. Foreign vessels are not allowed to fish within the EEZ without a government to government arrangement, and New Zealand is responsible for conservation measures.
|1977 to 1982||Deep water expansion|
The government encourages investment, joint ventures and capacity growth. Exports increase by a factor of five between 1979 and 1983. Exports of deepwater species grow from 4,000 tonnes in 1978 to 26,000 tonnes in 1982, when 11 deepwater firms are allocated quota in the deepwater fisheries. Inshore fishing permits increase from 4,000 in 1975 to 14,000 in 1979. By 1982 both inshore and deepwater fisheries are showing signs of stock depletion. The Government acknowledges that the seafood industry is facing serious problems, including over-capitalisation of the inshore fleet (by as much as 20%) and sustainability concerns around certain stocks.
|1980||TAC for finfish 379,500 tonnes||The TAC for finfish for trawling and bottom lining in 1979/80 and 1980/81 is set at 379,500 tonnes. The allocation for licensed foreign vessels is cut by 24% from 187,500 tonnes to 142,000 tonnes.|| |
|1982||Foreign vessel and joint venture tax incentives removed|
In 1978, joint ventures had been encouraged by the government to exploit less-preferred species, not generally caught by New Zealand fishers. By late 1978 22 NZ/foreign joint ventures are approved : 8 for finfish, 12 squid and 2 tuna. A further 4 are approved the next year and 8 are declined. The attraction to NZ companies was linked to tax incentives, capacity and knowledge transfer from overseas. In 1982 the government removes those incentives and refocuses on sustainability.